The single most important principle on Seasoned Advice (and any other Stack Exchange site) is for people to be able to find the information they're looking for.
I am not necessarily talking about SEO, although that certainly factors into it; this applies even if somebody is searching specifically within this community. The bottom line is that somebody at some point is going to be looking for information on
Israeli Salad or
Polish Sausage; they're unlikely to find what they're looking for if we insist on the possibly more accurate/authentic names
Palestinian Rural Salad or
Eastern European Style Sausage.
Yes, I am advocating convention over correctness, because ultimately that's what English is. Our language is defined by common usage, not formal rules, to the extent that blatantly incorrect usage of a certain word or phrase can literally end up in the dictionary.
That's not to say that we can't still do our best to educate people about where these dishes really came from, and the answer I submitted to the salad question plainly indicates that the dish might not really be Israeli in origin - it just happens to be where it was popularized.
I whole-heartedly endorse complete and thorough answers and this kind of thing is just one more aspect of thoroughness. If the question merits it - i.e. if it's a question like the salad one, specifically seeking out the name or definition of a dish - then it certainly makes sense to leave a few notes on authenticity and regional variations.
That said, I don't want us to start clouding every single Q&A thread with margin notes on culture, geography, and politics. There's a time and a place for everything, and if the history of a particular dish is not germane to the question, then it shouldn't be part of the answer. If somebody asks How to make French Fries à la McDonald's, then to have people start wildly exclaiming that French Fries didn't actually come from France is only going to paint us as a community of abrasive jerks. Save it for when it's actually helpful or at least relevant.
In conclusion, we should be mindful of these issues and take opportunities to clear up general misconceptions about foods - including their geographic and cultural origins - but wait for that opportunity. Please don't initiate a dogpile whenever somebody uses a widely-accepted term that happens to be mildly inaccurate. Life is full of these idiosyncrasies and we all get along just fine without somebody to whisper clarifications into our ear every few minutes.
For what it's worth, I've eaten at several Middle Eastern restaurants run by Arabs and many of them use the "Israeli Salad" label; similar items, like fattoush [salad], also appear on the menu as they are different preparations. I don't see any of them getting bent out of shape over this terminology. So if you're worried about offending someone, don't be. If somebody has a legitimate reason to be offended then I'm sure they'll point it out to us and we'll give their comments due consideration.